COSSÍO Manuel Bartolomé

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COSSÍO Manuel Bartolomé

n. a Haro (Logroño) nel 1857 - m. a Collado Mediano (Madrid) nel 1935, storico dell’arte, pedagogista ed educatore spagnolo.

1. Compiuti i corsi umanistici nel collegio agostiniano de El Escorial, C. studia filosofia e lettere all’università di Madrid, dove ha come professore​​ ​​ Giner de los Ríos, con cui stringe duraturi vincoli di amicizia e di collaborazione nell’Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE). Nel 1878 va come borsista al Collegio spagnolo di Bologna: vi studia archeologia, letteratura, estetica e pedagogia. Rientrato in patria, pubblica il saggio:​​ Carácter de la pedagogía contemporánea​​ (1879). Nel 1883 vince la cattedra di Storia dell’Arte a Barcellona ed è nominato direttore del Museo pedagogico di Madrid. Da questo momento i due centri di interesse di C. sono l’arte e l’educazione. Tra gli scritti più significativi:​​ El trabajo manual en la escuela primaria​​ (1883),​​ La enseñanza del arte​​ (1885),​​ Los problemas contemporáneos en la ciencia de la educación​​ (1897).​​ Nel 1915 assume la direzione della ILE.

2. Nel pensiero pedagogico di C. emergono tre temi privilegiati: l’educazione educativa, il metodo attivo, il maestro. Un’affermazione del primo scritto, più volte ripresa in seguito, sintetizza le idee sul fine dell’insegnamento: «fare del fanciullo, invece di un magazzino, un terreno fecondo». Coerente con una concezione «integrale e armonica» dell’educazione, C. propone l’ampliamento del programma scolastico, accogliendo, accanto alle materie letterarie tradizionali, anche l’arte, le scienze naturali, il lavoro manuale. Non si tratta però di far assimilare passivamente nuovi contenuti, ma di far sì che l’educando si renda capace di dirigere se stesso. La «fede totale nel maestro» va unita alla centralità dell’alunno, essere attivo e originale. Fu notevole l’influsso di C. nelle riforme della Pubblica Educazione della II Repubblica Spagnola (1931-1935).

Bibliografia

Prellezo J.M.,​​ M.B.C,​​ pedagogo y educador español (1857-1935),​​ in «Orientamenti Pedagogici» 33 (1986) 150-161; Ruiz Berrio J. - A. Tiana Ferrer - O. Negrín Fajardo (Edd.),​​ Un educador para un pueblo. M.B.C. y la renovación pedagógica institucionista,​​ Madrid, UNED, 1987; Portús J. - J. Vega,​​ El descubrimiento del arte español. Tres apasionados maestros: C.,​​ Lafuente,​​ Gaya Nuño, Tres Cantos (Madrid), Nivola, 2004.

J. M. Prellezo

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